Online assessments were once limited to computers connected to a network, but now can be administered on a multitude of electronic devices.
Recent advances in technology continue to influence the testing industry. Online assessment is rapidly changing. Once limited to assessment delivered via a computer connected to a network, assessments can now be administered on a multitude of electronic communication devices, including computers, and on handheld devices such as smartphones or clickers. Assessment in an online environment introduces a variety of measurement issues including test security for high stakes assessment and the comparability between assessments delivered in both online and traditional paper-and-pencil formats. Research in the area of online assessment is conducted to support improved measurement delivered in an online environment.